Friday, September 22, 2023, 5:12 PM
Site: Dearborn Educational Curriculum
Course: Dearborn Educational Curriculum (DEC)
Glossary: Social Studies Standards


Describe, compare, and contrast political philosophers views on purposes of government(s) including but not limited to Aristotle, Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu, and Rousseau.


Identify, provide examples of, and distinguish among different systems of government by analyzing similarities and differences in sovereignty, power, legitimacy, and authority.


Compare, contrast, and evaluate models of representation in democratic governments including presidential and parliamentary systems.


Compare and contrast federal, confederal, and unitary systems of government by analyzing similarities and differences in sovereignty and distribution of governmental powers.


Analyze the historical and philosophical origins of American Constitutional Democracy and analyze the influence of ideas found in the Magna Carta, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and John Locke’s Second Treatise.


Identify and analyze various Democratic Values of the United States as found in the Declaration of Independence.


Explain the impact of the major debates and compromises underlying the drafting and ratification of the American Constitution including the Virginia and New Jersey plans, the Great Compromise, debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists, debates concerning slavery, and the promise for a Bill of Rights after ratification.


Analyze relationships between Democratic Values and Constitutional Principles.


Analyze how influential historical speeches, writings, cases, and laws express Democratic Values and influenced changes in American culture, law, and the Constitution.


Use examples to investigate why people may agree on Democratic Values and Constitutional Principles in the abstract, yet disagree over their meaning when they are applied to specific situations.


Identify and describe the purposes, organization, powers, processes, and election of the legislative branch as enumerated in Article I of the Constitution.


Identify and describe the purposes, organization, powers, processes, and election of the executive branch as enumerated in Article II of the Constitution.


Identify and describe the purposes, organization, powers, processes, and appointment or election of the judicial branch as enumerated in Article III of the Constitution and as established in Marbury v. Madison.


Examine and evaluate the effectiveness the role of separation of powers and checks and balances in regard to the distribution of power and authority between the three branches of government.


Analyze the various levels and responsibilities in the federal and state judicial systems and explain the relationships among them.


Evaluate major sources of revenue and major expenditures of the federal government.


Identify and explain how Supreme Court decisions and provisions in the U.S. Constitution have impacted the power of the federal government.


Describe limits the U.S. Constitution places on powers of the states and on the federal government’s power over the states.


Explain interactions and tensions among federal, state, and local governments using the necessary and proper clause, the Commerce Clause, and the Tenth Amendment.


Describe how state, local, and tribal governments are organized, their major responsibilities, and how they affect the lives of people residing in their jurisdiction(s).


Analyze sovereignty of tribal governments in interactions with U.S. governments, including treaty formation, implementation, and enforcement between federal, state, and local governments and tribal governments.


Evaluate the major sources of revenue and expenditures for state, local, and tribal governments.


Describe and evaluate referendums, initiatives, and recall as mechanisms used to influence state and local government. Use a case study to examine the impact of one such listed mechanism.


Describe and analyze how groups and individuals influence public policy.


Describe the evolution of political parties and their contemporary influence on public policy.


Explain the concept of public opinion, factors that shape it, and contrasting views on the role it should and does play in public policy.


Explain the significance of campaigns and elections in American politics, currect criticisms of campaigns, and proposals for their reform.


Identify and discuss roles of non-governmental organizations in American civic society.


Explain functions and possible influence of various news and other media sources in political communication.


Analyze the credibility and validity of various forms of political communication.


Describe the five essential rights protected by the First Amendment.  Through the use of court cases and examples, explore and analyze the scope and limits of First Amendment rights.


Using the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments, describe the rights of the accused; using court cases and examples, describe the limit and scope of these rights.


Explain how the Civil War led to the creation of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Analyze each Amendment’s relative effectiveness.


Explain how significant historical events, including but not limited to the suffrage movements and the civil rights movements, resulted in changes to the interpretation of and Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.


Using the Fourteenth Amendment, describe the impact of the doctrine of incorporation, due process of law, and equal protection of law on the articulation and extension of rights.


Identify and explain personal rights, political rights, and economic rights as well as how these rights might conflict.


Describe considerations, criteria, and examples that have been used to deny, limit, or extend protection of individual rights.


Identify and describe ways in which foreign policy is made including Constitutional powers of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches and how those powers have been clarified or interpreted over time.


Analyze past and present examples of U.S. foreign policy, its implementation, and its impact on American and international institutions and individuals.


Describe ways in which groups and individuals influence foreign policy.


Analyze the influence and impact of U.S. political, economic, technological, and cultural developments on countries and people around the world.


Analyze how international political, economic, technological, and cultural developments impact U.S. institutions and individuals.


Identify and evaluate the roles and responsibilities of the United States in international governmental organizations including bilateral and multilateral agreements.


Identify and evaluate international non-governmental organizations.


Describe and evaluate the requirements and process for becoming a citizen of the United States.


Explain how the United States has limited and expanded citizenship over time.


Compare and contrast rights and representation among U.S. people and citizens living in states, territories, federal districts, and on tribally governed land.


Using examples, explain the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens as well as people living in the United States.


Explain the personal dispositions that contribute to knowledgeable and engaged participation in civic communities.


Explain how informed members of society influence civic life.


Explain and evaluate how people, individually or collectively, seek to bring the United States closer to its Democratic Values.


Identify, discuss, and analyze methods individuals and/or groups have chosen to attempt social and legal change.  Assess the effects of civil disobedience, social movements, demonstrations, protests on society and law.


Identify and describe a local, state, national, or international public policy issue; research and evaluate multiple solutions; analyze the consequences of each solution and propose, defend, and take relevant action to address or resolve the issue.


Equip students with the skills and knowledge to explore multiple pathways for knowledgeable, civic engagement through simulations and/or real-world opportunities for involvement.


"Explain the causes and consequences of contemporary population changes by analyzing


Explain changes in the use, distribution, and importance of natural resources (including land, water, energy, food; and renewable, non-renewable, and flow resources) on human life, settlement, and interactions by describing and evaluating:

  • changes in spatial distribution and use of natural resources.
  • the differences in ways societies have been using and distributing natural resources.
  • social, political, economic, and environmental consequences of the development, distribution, and use of natural resources.
  • major changes in networks for the production, distribution, and consumption of natural resources, including the growth of multinational corporations and governmental and non-governmental organizations.
  • the impact of humans on the global environment.


"Define the process of globalization and evaluate the merit of this concept to describe


"Analyze the causes and challenges of continuing and new conflicts by describing:


Scarcity, Choice, Opportunity Costs, Incentives – using examples, explain how scarcity, choice, opportunity costs, and incentives affect decisions made by households, businesses, and governments.


Entrepreneurship – analyze the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship and associate the functions of entrepreneurs with alleviating problems associated with scarcity.


Marginal Analysis – weigh marginal benefits and marginal costs in decision making.


Institutions – describe the roles of various economic institutions and purposes they serve in a market economy.


Market Structures – identify the characteristics of perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly market structures.


Supply And Demand – use the laws of supply and demand to explain household and business behavior.


Price, Equilibrium, Elasticity, and Incentives – analyze how prices change through the interaction of buyers and sellers in a market, including the role of supply, demand, equilibrium, and elasticity, and explain how incentives (monetary and non-monetary) affect choices of households and economic organizations.


Public Policy and the Market – analyze the impact of a change in public policy on consumers, producers, workers, savers, and investors.


Government and Consumers – analyze the role of government in protecting consumers and enforcing contracts (including property rights), and explain how this role influences the incentives (or disincentives) for people to produce and exchange goods and services.


Government Revenue and Services – analyze the ways in which local and state governments generate revenue and use that revenue to supply public services.


Market Failure – explain the role for government in addressing both negative and positive externalities.


Consequences of Governmental Policy – assess the incentives for political leaders to implement policies that disperse costs widely over large groups of people and benefit small and politically powerful groups.


Price Controls – analyze the impact of price ceilings and price floors on the quantity of a good or service supplied and demanded in a market.


Circular Flow and the National Economy – using the concept of circular flow, analyze the roles of and relationship between households, business firms, and government in the economy of the United States.


Economic Indicators – using a number of indicators, such as gross domestic product (GDP), per capita GDP, unemployment rates, and consumer price index, analyze the current and future state of an economy.


Government Involvement in the Economy – evaluate the three macroeconomic goals of an economic systen (stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth).


Government Revenue and Services – evaluate the ways in which the federal government generates revenue on consumption, income, and wealth, and uses that revenue to supply government services and public goods, and protect property rights.


Fiscal Policy and its Consequences – analyze the consequences (intended and unintended) of using various tax and spending policies to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.


Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy – explain the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve system and compare and contrast the consequences (intended and unintended) of different monetary policy actions of the Federal Reserve Board as a means to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.


Developing Nations – assess how factors such as availability of natural resources, investments in human and physical capital, technical assistance, public attitudes and beliefs, property rights, and free trade can affect economic growth in developing nations.


International Organizations and the World Economy – evaluate the diverse impact of trade policies of the World Trade Organization, World Bank, or International Monetary Fund on developing economies of Africa, Central America, or Asia, and on the developed economies of the United States and Western Europe.


Comparing Economic Systems – compare and contrast the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of traditional, command, market, and mixed economic systems.


Impact of Transitional Economies – analyze the impact of transitional economies, such as in China and India, on the global economy in general and the American economy in particular.


Absolute and Comparative Advantage – use the concepts of absolute and comparative advantages to explain why goods and services are produced in one nation or locale versus another.


Domestic Activity and World Trade – assess the impact of trade policies, monetary policy, exchange rates, and interest rates on domestic activity and world trade.


Exchange Rate and World Trade – analyze the effects on trade from a change in an exchange rate between two currencies.


The Global Economy and the Marketplace – analyze and describe how the global economy has changed the interaction of buyers and sellers.


Earning Income - conduct research regarding potential income and employee benefit packages, non-income factors that may influence career choice, benefits and costs of obtaining the necessary education or technical skills, taxes a person is likely to pay, and other possible sources of income.


Buying Goods And Services – describe the factors that consumers may consider when purchasing a good or service, including the costs, benefits, and the role of government in obtaining the information.


Saving – identify the incentives people have to set aside income for future consumption, and evaluate the impact of time, interest rates, and inflation upon the value of savings.


Using Credit – evaluate the benefits, costs, and potential impacts of using credit to purchase goods and services.


Financial Investing – analyze the risks, expected rate of return, tax benefits, impact of inflation, role of government agencies, and importance of diversification when investing in financial assests.


Protecting and Insuring – assess the financial risk of lost income, assets, health, or identity, and determine if a person should accept the risk exposure, reduce risk, or transfer the risk to others by paying a fee now to avoid the possibility of a larger loss later.


F1.1 Identify the core ideals of American society as reflected in the documents below, and analyze the ways that American society moved toward and/or away from its core ideals:

  • the Declaration of Independence.
  • the original United States Constitution (including the Preamble).
  • the Bill of Rights.
  • the Gettysburg Address.
  • the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. 


Using the American Revolution, the creation and adoption of the Constitution, and the Civil War as touchstones, develop and argument about the changing character of American political society and the roles of key individuals across cutlures in prompting/supporting the change.


Analyze how the changing character of American political society from 1791 to 1877 significant impact on the responsibilities of governments through the principle of federalism.


"Factors in the American Second Industrial Revolution – analyze the factors


Labor’s Response to Industrial Growth – evaluate the different responses of labor to industrial change, including the development of organized labor and the growth of populism and the populist movement.


"Urbanization – explain the causes and consequences of urbanization,


"Growth and Change – explain the social, political, economic, and cultural shifts taking place in the United States at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, by:


"Growth of U.S. Global Power – describe how America redefined its foreign policy between 1890 and 1914 and analyze the causes and consequences of the U.S.


"World War I – explain the causes of World War I, the reasons for American


"Domestic Impact of World War I – analyze the domestic impact of World War


"Wilson and His Opponents – explain how President Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen


Describe the extent to which industrialization and urbanization between 1895 and 1930 created the need for progressive reform.


Analyze the social, political, economic, and cultural changes that occurred during the Progressive Era.


Evaluate the historical impact of the Progressive Era with regard to governmental and industrial reforms.


Women’s Suffrage – Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women's rights, including the work of important leaders and the eventual ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.


"The Twenties – explain and evaluate the significance of the social, cultural,


"Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression – explain and evaluate


"The New Deal Era – explain and evaluate President Franklin Roosevelt’s policies


"Causes of World War II – analyze the factors contributing to World War II in


United States and the Course of World War II – evaluate the role of the United States in fighting the war militarily, diplomatically, and technologically across the world.


"Impact of World War II on American Life – analyze the changes in American life brought about by U.S. participation in World War II, including:


Responses to Genocide – investigate the responses to Hitler’s “Final Solution" policy by the Allies, the U.S. government, international organizations, and individuals.


"Origins and Beginnings of the Cold War – analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including: • differences in the civic, ideological, and political values, and in the economic and


"Foreign Policy During the Cold War – compare the causes and consequences


End of the Cold War – describe the factors that led to the end of the Cold War.


"Demographic Changes – use population data to produce and analyze maps


"Policy Concerning Domestic Issues – analyze major domestic issues in the


Comparing Domestic Policies – focusing on causes, programs, and impacts, compare and contrast President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives, President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs, and President Ronald Reagan’s market-based domestic policies.


Domestic Conflicts and Tensions – analyze and evaluate the competing perspectives and controversies among Americans generated by U.S. Supreme Court decisions, the Vietnam War, the environmental movement, the movement for Civil Rights (See U.S. History Standards 8.3) and the constitutional crisis generated by the Watergate scandal.


"Civil Rights Movement – analyze key events, ideals, documents, and organizations


Ideals of the Civil Rights Movement – compare and contrast the ideas in Martin Luther King’s March on Washington speech to the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Seneca Falls Resolution, and the Gettysburg Address.


Women’s Rights – analyze the causes, course, and reaction to the women’s rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s.


Civil Rights Expanded – evaluate the major accomplishments and setbacks in securing civil rights and liberties for all Americans over the 20th century.


Tensions and Reactions to Poverty and Civil Rights – analyze the causes and consequences of the civil unrest that occurred in American cities, by comparing civil unrest in Detroit with at least one other American city.


Economic Changes – using the changing nature of the American automobile industry as a case study, evaluate changes in the American economy created by new markets, natural resources, technologies, corporate structures, international competition, new sources/methods of production, energy issues, and mass communication.


"Transformation of American Politics – analyze the transformation of American


United States in the Post-Cold War World – explain the role of the United States as a superpower in the post-Cold War world, including advantages, disadvantages, and new challenges.


9/11 and Responses to Terrorism – analyze how the attacks on 9/11 and the response to terrorism have altered American domestic and international policies.


Make a persuasive argument on a public policy issue, and justify the position with evidence from historical antecedents and precedents, and Democratic Values or Constitutional Principles.


Growth and Interactions of World Religions – analyze the significance of the growth of and interactions between world religions.


Intensifying Trade Networks and Contacts – compare and contrast the development, interdependence, specialization, and importance of interregional land-based and sea-based trading systems both within and between societies.


Growth of Islam and Dar al-Islam (a country, territory, land, or abode where Muslim sovereignty prevails) - explain the significance of Islam in an interconnected Afro-Eurasia.


Unification of Eurasia under the Mongols – analyze the significance of Mongol rule in Afro-Eurasia and the impact of the Mongol Empire's disintegration.


Spheres of Interaction and Influence in the Americas – compare and contrast the diverse characteristics and interactions of peoples in the Americas.


Cultural Encounters and the Columbian Exchange – explain the demographic, environmental, and political consequences of European oceanic travel and conquest.


The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade – analyze the causes and development of the Atlantic trade system with respect to the capture and sale of Africans, the creation of the gun-slave cycle, the Middle Passage, and forced migration of Africans to the Americas, the establishment of the plantation complex, and the rise of slave resistance in the New World.


Afro-Eurasian Empires – compare and contrast the different ways governments expanded or centralized control across various parts of Afro-Eurasia, and analyze the consequences of these changes.


Global Revolutions – explain the characteristics, extent, and impact of the global revolutions, including but not limited to changes in economic and political systems, and shifts in relative political and military power.


Worldwide Migrations and Population Changes – analyze the causes and consequences of shifts in world population and major patterns of long-distance migrations, including the impact of industrialism, imperialisn, changing diets, and scientific advances.


Increasing Global Interconnections – describe the increasing global interconnections and new global networks that resulted in the spread of major innovations in governance, economic systems, cultural traits, technologies, and commodities.


Comparing Political Revolutions and/or Independence Movements – compare and contrast the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and one other revolution or independence movement that occurred in a region external to Europe from the standpoint of political, economic, and social causes and consequences.


Growth of Nationalism and Nation-States – compare and contrast the rise of nation-states in a western and non-western context.


Industrialization – compare and contrast the causes and consequences of industrialization around the world, including social, economic, and environmental impacts.


Imperialism – analyze the political, economic, and social causes and consequences of imperialism in different regions.


Power and Resistance – describe the global reconfigurations and restructuring of political and economic relationships throughout the 20th century and to the present, including state-organized efforts to expand power and the role of resistance movements against such efforts.


Global Conflict – compare and contrast the nature, extent, and impact of modern warfare with warfare in the previous eras, including the roles of ideology, technology, and civilians.


Genocide in the 20th Century – differentiate genocide from other atrocities and forms of mass killing and explain its extent, causes, and consequences in the 20th century and to the present.


Technological, Scientific, and Cultural Exchanges – describe significant technological innovations and scientific breakthroughs in transportation, communication, medicine, and warfare and analyze how they both benefited and imperiled humanity.


World War I – explain the causes, characteristics, and long-term consequences of World War I, including the major decisions of the Versailles Treaty.


Interwar Period – analyze the transformations that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II, including the economic depression, and the spread of fascism, communism, and nationalism in different world regions.


World War II – analyze the causes, course, characteristics, and consequences of World War II, including the emergence the United States and Soviet Union as global superpowers.


Cold War Conflicts – analyze the causes and consequences of major Cold War conflicts, including the global reconfigurations and restructuring of political and economic relationships in the post-World War II era.


Revolution, Decolonization, and Democratization – evaluate the causes and consequences of revolutionary and independence movements in different world regions.


Case Studies of Genocide – analyze the development, enactment, and consequences of, as well as the international community's responses to, the Holocaust (or Shoah), Armenian Genocide, and at least one other genocide.


Emerging Global System – differentiate between the global systems of trade, migration, and political power from those in the previous era.


Diffusion of World Religions – evaluate the impact of the diffusion of world religions and belief systems on social, political, cultural, and economic systems.